News 2019


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Results 101 - 120 of 280.


Life Sciences - 07.03.2019
Pesticides found to affect bees' genes
Pesticides found to affect bees’ genes
The activity of dozens of genes are changed in bees exposed to pesticides, providing clues as to how these chemicals affect bee brains in the wild. The finding could provide clues as to why certain pesticides have been linked to bee colony declines. Our work reveals that neurotoxic pesticides not only directly target the cells of the nervous system, but also indirectly affect the normal activity of the exposed organism's genes.

Environment - 06.03.2019
Sea ice acts as 'pacemaker' for abrupt climate change
Sea ice acts as ’pacemaker’ for abrupt climate change
Substantial variations in past sea ice cover in the Norwegian Sea were instrumental for several abrupt climate changes in large parts of the world, researchers have found.  An international study involving researchers from the UK, Norway, Germany Australia, South Korea and the US has confirmed that changes in sea ice cover in the Norwegian Sea played a key role in driving abrupt climate change events between 32,000 and 40,000 years ago, where global temperatures shifted as much as 15 degrees Celsius.

Health - Pharmacology - 06.03.2019
New Hepatitis C cases down by almost 70 per cent in HIV positive men in London
New cases of hepatitis C amongst HIV positive men in London have fallen by nearly 70 per cent in recent years. The new analysis of data from three clinics in London found 256 men were diagnosed between 2013-2018. New infections peaked at 17 for every 1000 people studied in 2015 and fell to six by 2018.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 06.03.2019
Fossilised palm leaves give new insights into the geographical landscape of prehistoric central Tibet
Fossilised palm leaves give new insights into the geographical landscape of prehistoric central Tibet
A team of scientists from the UK and China have uncovered new evidence, using recently-discovered 25-million-year-old fossilised palm leaves, that Tibet's geography was not as 'high and dry' as previously thought. The new research, co-authored by academics from the University of Bristol's School of Geographical Sciences , suggests that central Tibet must have been no higher than 2.3km with large lakes fringed with subtropical vegetation and deep, hidden valleys.

Environment - Life Sciences - 06.03.2019
New tech could help keep better track of Serengeti wildbeest
New methods of counting wildlife could provide conservationists with fast and accurate methods for estimating the abundance of natural populations. In a new paper published in the journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution , mathematicians and conservationists from the UK, Africa and the United States discuss how they have used both machine-learning and citizen science techniques to accurately count wildebeest in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania more rapidly than is possible using traditional methods.

Earth Sciences - Palaeontology - 06.03.2019
Dinosaurs were thriving before asteroid strike that wiped them out
Dinosaurs were thriving before asteroid strike that wiped them out
Dinosaurs were unaffected by long-term climate changes and flourished before their sudden demise by asteroid strike, new research, co-authored by the University of Bristol, has found. Scientists largely agree that an asteroid impact, possibly coupled with intense volcanic activity, wiped out the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period 66 million years ago.

Palaeontology - Earth Sciences - 06.03.2019
Dinosaurs were thriving before asteroid strike that wiped them out
Dinosaurs were thriving before asteroid strike that wiped them out
Dinosaurs were unaffected by long-term climate changes and flourished before their sudden demise by asteroid strike. Scientists largely agree that an asteroid impact, possibly coupled with intense volcanic activity, wiped out the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs were likely not doomed to extinction until the end of the Cretaceous, when the asteroid hit.

Environment - Life Sciences - 06.03.2019
Scientists put ichthyosaurs in virtual water tanks
Scientists put ichthyosaurs in virtual water tanks
Using computer simulations and 3D models, palaeontologists from the University of Bristol have uncovered more detail on how Mesozoic sea dragons swam. The research, published today in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B , sheds new light on their energy demands while swimming, showing that even the first ichthyosaurs had body shapes well adapted to minimise resistance and maximise volume, in a similar way to modern dolphins.

Life Sciences - 06.03.2019
Mighty mites give scrawny beetles the edge over bigger rivals
Smaller beetles who consistently lose fights over resources can gain a competitive advantage over their larger rivals by teaming up with another species.  When the costs of a mutualistic relationship start to outweigh the benefits, it will break down Syuan-Jyun Sun In a study featuring a miniature 'gym' for beetles (complete with beetle treadmills), researchers from the University of Cambridge found that beetles who consistently lose out to members of their own species have the most to gain by forming a mutually-beneficial cross-species partnership.

Health - 06.03.2019
Common chest infection puts babies at risk of hospitalisation in preschool years
Infants who are admitted to hospital with the common infection bronchiolitis are at increased risk of further emergency hospital visits. These are the findings of researchers from Imperial College London , who tracked 613,377 babies (almost all births in England between April 2007 - March 2008) up to the age of five years.

Media - 05.03.2019
Sparks calls for tougher enforcement on social media companies
Research into the use of Russian-linked social media accounts following the 2017 UK terrorist attacks has led to calls for greater regulation of technology companies. In their report on Disinformation and ‘fake news' , the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee described how work by the Crime and Security Research Institute was among “strong evidence” which, “detailed ways in which the Kremlin attempted to influence attitudes in UK politics”.

Pharmacology - Health - 05.03.2019
HIV remission achieved in second patient
A second person has experienced sustained remission from HIV-1 after ceasing treatment, reports a paper led by UCL and Imperial College London. The case report comes ten years after the first such case, known as the ‘Berlin Patient.' Both patients were treated with stem cell transplants from donors carrying a genetic mutation that prevents expression of an HIV receptor CCR5.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 05.03.2019
Could genetic breakthrough finally help take the sting out of mouth ulcers?
A large breakthrough has been made in the genetic understanding of mouth ulcers which could provide potential for a new drug to prevent or heal the painful lesions. Mouth ulcers affect up to 25 per cent of young adults and a higher proportion of children. Previous research has shown that mouth ulcers are partially heritable, but until now there has been little evidence linking specific genes or genomic regions to mouth ulcers.

Health - Environment - 05.03.2019
Enabling targeted interventions to reduce the burden of mosquito-borne diseases
The global population at risk from mosquito-borne diseases - including yellow fever, Zika and dengue - is expanding with changes in the distribution of two key mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . The spread of these species is largely driven by a combination of factors: human movements and climate change.

Pharmacology - Health - 05.03.2019
HIV remission achieved in second patient
HIV remission achieved in second patient
A second person has experienced sustained remission from HIV-1 after ceasing treatment, according to a study published today in Nature.

Health - Pharmacology - 05.03.2019
’Test and Treat’ reduces new HIV infections by a third in African communities
Results from largest ever HIV prevention trial suggest strategy could make a significant contribution to controlling epidemic New HIV infections in southern Africa could be reduced substantially by offering entire communities voluntary HIV testing, and immediately referring those who test positive for HIV treatment in line with local guidelines, according to new research presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, USA today.

Life Sciences - Health - 04.03.2019
Harnessing beneficial bacteria for a sustainable future
Repurposing a strain of beneficial bacteria could offer a safe, sustainable and natural alternative to man-made chemical pesticides, according to research from Cardiff University, in collaboration with the Universities of Warwick and Liverpool, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Finding natural approaches to sustain agriculture and food production is a major global challenge.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 04.03.2019
Protocells use DNA logic to communicate and compute
Protocells use DNA logic to communicate and compute
Researchers at the University of Bristol, Eindhoven University of Technology and Microsoft Research have successfully assembled communities of artificial cells that can chemically communicate and perform molecular computations using entrapped DNA logic gates. The work provides a step towards chemical cognition in synthetic protocells and could be useful in biosensing and therapeutics.

Pharmacology - Health - 04.03.2019
’Game changer’ in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
The first test to quickly and accurately predict how people will respond to standard treatment for the most common type of leukaemia has been developed at Cardiff University. The technology could guide doctors' decisions on which drugs to give to patients. The Cardiff researchers say that the test could now be a ‘game changer' in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).

Environment - 04.03.2019
Chemical pollutants in the home degrade fertility in both men and dogs
New research by scientists at the University of Nottingham suggests that environmental contaminants found in the home and diet have the same adverse effects on male fertility in both humans and in domestic dogs. There has been increasing concern over declining human male fertility in recent decades with studies showing a 50% global reduction in sperm quality in the past 80 years.