news 2018

Medicine Apr 20
Medicine
The less commonly prescribed opioid substitute buprenorphine may be safer than methadone for problem opioid users, especially if used during the first month of treatment, according to a study by researchers from the University of Bristol, King's College London, University of Manchester and Bristol Drugs Project, with implications for guidance on GP prescribing.
Life Sciences Apr 20
Life Sciences

A new study co-authored by Daniel Streiker, from the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, and led by researchers from Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Cop

Life Sciences Apr 20
Life Sciences

Scientists have identified the molecular mechanism that leads to the death of neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or motor neurone disease) and a common form of frontotemporal dementia.

Environment Apr 20
Environment

The density of barriers in European rivers is much higher than indicated by available databases - up to one barrier in every kilometre of river, according to a new study.

Medicine Apr 20

Research published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine suggests that empathic, positive messages from doctors may be of small benefit to patients suffering from pain, and improve their satisfaction about the care received.


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Medicine/Pharmacology
20.04.2018
Buprenorphine may be a safer opioid substitute than methadone but only if treatment duration is longer, study suggests
Buprenorphine may be a safer opioid substitute than methadone but only if treatment duration is longer, study suggests
The less commonly prescribed opioid substitute buprenorphine may be safer than methadone for problem opioid users, especially if used during the first month of treatment, according to a study by researchers from the University of Bristol, King's College London, University of Manchester and Bristol Drugs Project, with implications for guidance on GP prescribing.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
20.04.2018
New DNA screening reveals whose blood the vampire bat is drinking
New DNA screening reveals whose blood the vampire bat is drinking
A new study co-authored by Daniel Streiker, from the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, and led by researchers from Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, describes a new DNA method to efficiently screen many vampire bat blood meal and faecal samples with a high success rate and thereby determine which animals the vampire bats have fed on blood from.
Environment/Sustainable Development
20.04.2018
High number of barriers in Europe's rivers could hinder fish migration
High number of barriers in Europe’s rivers could hinder fish migration
The density of barriers in European rivers is much higher than indicated by available databases - up to one barrier in every kilometre of river, according to a new study. Information For the first time, scientists are now inviting citizens to help in updating information about these barriers with a newly-developed smartphone app.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
20.04.2018
Mechanism behind neuron death in motor neurone disease and frontotemporal dementia discovered
Mechanism behind neuron death in motor neurone disease and frontotemporal dementia discovered
Scientists have identified the molecular mechanism that leads to the death of neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or motor neurone disease) and a common form of frontotemporal dementia.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Physics/Materials Science
20.04.2018
A dose of empathy may support patients in pain
Research published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine suggests that empathic, positive messages from doctors may be of small benefit to patients suffering from pain, and improve their satisfaction about the care received. The study, which combined data from 28 clinical trials involving over 6,000 patients, adds weight to the argument that patient outcomes can be improved when doctors enhance how they express empathy and create positive expectations of benefit.
Life Sciences
20.04.2018
'Rip Van Winkle' plants hide underground for up to 20 years
’Rip Van Winkle’ plants hide underground for up to 20 years
'Rip Van Winkle' plants hide underground for up to 20 years Scores of plant species are capable of living dormant under the soil for up to 20 years, enabling them to survive through difficult times, a new study has found. An international team of academics has found that at least 114 plant species from 24 different plant families, from widespread locations and ecological communities around the world, are capable of prolonged dormancy as adult plants, remaining alive in the soil but not emerging from the ground every spring.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
20.04.2018
New ’brain health index’ can predict how well patients will do after stroke
A new computer programme developed by scientists at the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow can assess whole brain deterioration and help predict cognitive function after stroke up to ten times more accurately than current methods. The new approach, published today in the International Journal of Stroke , can quantify visible brain injury from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and brain atrophy by translating the million plus bits of information stored in brain scans into a single measure, the “brain health index”.
History/Archeology - Life Sciences
19.04.2018
Dodo’s violent death revealed
World famous Oxford Dodo died after being shot in the back of the head - breakthrough evidence revealed through new research by the University of Oxford's Museum of Natural History and WMG at the University of Warwick The Oxford Dodo is the only dodo specimen in the world to contain soft tissue and extractable DNA "This discovery reveals important new information about the history of the Oxford Dodo," says Professor Paul Smith from the Universit
History/Archeology - Physics/Materials Science
19.04.2018
Red and yellow paint on Antonine Wall
Dr Louisa Campbell with the Summerston distance stone at The Hunterian Museum University of Glasgow archaeologist using cutting edge technology on remnants of the Antonine Wall has shown parts of it were painted in bright colours. Dr Louisa Campbell's research, which has used x-ray and laser technology to analyse parts of the Roman Empire's most north-western frontier, showed it was painted with vibrant red and yellows.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Life Sciences
19.04.2018
Small changes in rainforests cause big damage to fish ecosystems
Freshwater fish diversity is harmed as much by selective logging in rainforests as they are by complete deforestation, according to a new study. Researchers had expected the level of damage would rise depending on the amount of logging and were surprised to discover the impact of removing relatively few trees.
Medicine/Pharmacology
19.04.2018
Changing how blood pressure is measured will save lives
Changing how blood pressure is measured will save lives
Traditional methods of testing for high-blood pressure are no longer adequate and risk missing vital health signs, which can lead to premature death, a study co-led by UCL has found. The research, the largest ever cohort study of its kind, published in the New England Journal for Medicine, assessed 63,000 doctors' patients, who had their blood pressure tested using traditional 'in clinic' methods, such as an automated or hand operated devices.
Chemistry
18.04.2018
Researchers identify "smell" given off by malaria-infected children
Children infected with malaria give off a distinctive smell through their skin which makes them even more attractive to mosquitoes, researchers have found. In a new study published today a team including scientists from Cardiff University have been able to identify this unique chemical fingerprint for the very first time, opening up the possibility of developing a system to lure mosquitoes away from human populations.
Medicine/Pharmacology
17.04.2018
Diabetes drug may not reduce risk of death
One class of drug used to treat type 2 diabetes may not reduce the risk of death when compared with placebo, suggests new findings. The research, led by scientists from Imperial College London and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association , studied three types of diabetes treatment: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.
Life Sciences - Environment/Sustainable Development
17.04.2018
Healthy soil lifts animal weight
Healthy soil lifts animal weight
Managing soil by well-designed grazing is key to an animal's growth and wellbeing shows new research linking soil health, pasture value and sustainable production. Individual pastures on livestock farms yield surprisingly dissimilar benefits to a farm's overall agricultural income, and those differences are most likely attributable to the varying levels of "soil health" provided by its grazing livestock, reveals a study published in the journal Animal .
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
17.04.2018
Could stem cell therapy be an effective treatment for Friedreich's ataxia?
Could stem cell therapy be an effective treatment for Friedreich’s ataxia?
Researchers at the University of Bristol are looking for people with an inherited neurological condition called Friedreich's ataxia (FA) to take part in a study into whether a stem cell therapy could be a treatment for FA. The small, pilot study aims to recruit seven people to find out if the bone marrow stem cell mobilising drug, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), could improve blood markers and potentially treat the condition.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
17.04.2018
How does dietary restriction extend lifespan in flies?
How does dietary restriction extend lifespan in flies?
Lifespan in flies is extended by limiting the activity of a group of proteins called GATA transcription factors (TFs), giving clues to how a moderate reduction in food intake protects against multiple ageing-related diseases, according to a new UCL-led study. The beneficial effect of reducing the action of a GATA TF is comparable to the prolonged lifespan achieved through dietary restriction; which is defined as a reduction of particular or total nutrient intake without causing malnutrition.
Physics/Materials Science - Microtechnics/Electroengineering
17.04.2018
New type of opal formed by common seaweed discovered
New type of opal formed by common seaweed discovered
Scientists have discovered a completely new type of opal formed by a common seaweed which harnesses natural technology by self-assembling a nanostructure of oil droplets to control how light reflects from its cells to display a shimmering array of colours that until now, has only been seen in the gem stone.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
16.04.2018
Antimicrobial therapy can prevent sepsis in pneumonia patients
Antimicrobial therapy that targets specific cells in the immune system could prevent sepsis and life-threatening disease in people with pneumonia, new research by Nottingham and Leicester scientists has shown. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mortality by infectious disease and is more common in certain at-risk groups of people, such as the very young or the elderly.
Social Sciences - Psychology
16.04.2018
'Cognitive flexibility' associated with voting attitudes in EU Referendum, study finds
’Cognitive flexibility’ associated with voting attitudes in EU Referendum, study finds
Latest research combining social and political surveys with objective cognitive testing suggests that "cognitive flexibility" contributes to formation of ideology. The study finds correlations between cognitive thinking styles and support for Brexit.
Life Sciences - Environment/Sustainable Development
16.04.2018
Honeybees are struggling to get enough good bacteria
Honeybees are struggling to get enough good bacteria
Modern monoculture farming, commercial forestry and even well-intentioned gardeners could be making it harder for honeybees to store food and fight off diseases, a new study suggests. Human changes to the landscape, such as large areas of monoculture grassland for livestock grazing, and coniferous forests for timber production, is affecting the diversity of the ‘microbiome' associated with honeybees' long-term food supply.
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