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Life Sciences
26.05.2017
People match confidence levels to make decisions in groups
People match confidence levels to make decisions in groups
When trying to make a decision with another person, people tend to match their confidence levels, which can backfire if one person has more expertise than the other, finds a new study led by UCL and University of Oxford researchers. The study, published in Nature Human Behaviour , shows that the degree of stated confidence in one's opinion is infectious when working in a team, which can blur the boundary between well-informed and poorly-informed opinion, sometimes to the detriment of group decision making.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
26.05.2017
Genetic test for anal cancer could identify those at high risk
Genetic test for anal cancer could identify those at high risk
A new genetic test could be an accurate and inexpensive way to find and treat those at highest risk of anal cancer - a disease with growing incidence in women, men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with HIV. The early research by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), which was funded by Cancer Research UK, finds that the test could lead to a reduction in painful procedures and minimise the over-treatment of people at low risk.
Social Sciences - Administration/Government
26.05.2017
Researchers looking for men to take part in new domestic violence study
Researchers looking for men to take part in new domestic violence study
Researchers at the University of Bristol's Centre for Academic Primary Care are looking for men who are concerned that they are, or have been, abusive in their relationships with women to take part in a new study that will help improve how we support men in changing their behaviour. Abusive behaviour can involve a range of actions, including physically hurting someone, pushing or shoving them, frightening them, or controlling or pressuring them into doing what you want or not doing what they want.
Medicine/Pharmacology
26.05.2017
Vitamin D in pregnancy may help prevent childhood asthma
Vitamin D in pregnancy may help prevent childhood asthma A new study published today in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has found that taking Vitamin D supplements in pregnancy can positively modify the immune system of the newborn baby, which could help to protect against asthma and respiratory infections, a known risk factor for developing asthma in childhood.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
25.05.2017
New approach predicts threats to rainforests
Borneo is an island that has lost a staggering 30 percent of its forest since the 1970s and is among the most biodiverse and threatened on the planet. The study findings, published in Landscape Ecology, will be useful to all forest conservationists, and could help tropical forests around the world, including Borneo.
Pedagogy/Education Science - Social Sciences
25.05.2017
IVF babies do not have lower cognitive skills than naturally conceived children
New research shows that between the ages of three and 11, children conceived artificially can be linked with better scores for reading and verbal tests than children conceived naturally.  Researchers analysed data of hundreds of UK children who had been born through IVF or ICSI (when the man has a low sperm count), testing the same groups of children every few years up to the age of 11.
Life Sciences - Environment/Sustainable Development
25.05.2017
New insights into the ancestors of all complex life
New insights into the ancestors of all complex life
A team of scientists led by the University of Bristol has provided new insights into the origins of the Archaea, the group of simple cellular organisms that are the ancestors of all complex life. The Archaea are one of the Earth's most genetically and ecologically diverse groups of micro-organisms. They thrive in a bewildering variety of habitats, from the familiar - soils and oceans - to the inhospitable and bizarre, such as the boiling acid pools of Yellowstone National Park.
Careers/Employment - Business/Economics
25.05.2017
New research proves the ‘migrant work ethic' exists, in the short term
New research proves the ‘migrant work ethic’ exists, in the short term
The received wisdom that migrant workers have a stronger ‘work ethic' than UK-born workers is proven for the first time, in a new study of Central and East European migrants, from the University of Bath's School of Management. The research shows that migrant workers are over three times less likely to be absent from work than native UK workers, a measure which economists equate with work ethic.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
24.05.2017
Zika spread secrets tracked through new gene sequencing study
Image 1) Zibra Natal - Ingra Morales (University of Sao Paulo) and Josh Quick (University of Birmingham - UK) use Oxford Nanopore MinION device. Image 2) Science on the road bus - Jaqueline Goes de Jesus (Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz - Salvador) and Nuno Faria (University of Oxford - UK) use the Oxford Nanopore MinION device in front of minibus equiped with built-in laboratory in Joao Pessoa, Brazil.
Chemistry - Life Sciences
23.05.2017
Himalayan powerhouses: how Sherpas have evolved superhuman energy efficiency
Himalayan powerhouses: how Sherpas have evolved superhuman energy efficiency
Sherpas have evolved to become superhuman mountain climbers, extremely efficient at producing the energy to power their bodies even when oxygen is scarce, suggests a new study led by University of Cambridge and UCL researchers, published today in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) .
Medicine/Pharmacology - Psychology
23.05.2017
City life could present psychosis risk for adolescents
Living in a city could significantly increase young people's vulnerability to psychotic experiences, according to a new study from King's College London and Duke University. Published today in Schizophrenia Bulletin , the study found that British adolescents raised in major cities in England and Wales were over 40 per cent more likely to report psychotic experiences (e.g.
Medicine/Pharmacology
22.05.2017
Diesel fumes could cause ’flare up’ of respiratory symptoms
Scientists have shown how diesel fumes trigger respiratory reflexes which could potentially worsen underlying conditions, such as asthma. The study, led by researchers at Imperial College London, is the first to demonstrate a mechanism by which diesel exhaust particles, a major component of air pollution in European cities, directly affect the lungs to initiate symptoms such as a tightening of the airways and cough.
Social Sciences
22.05.2017
Record levels of in-work poverty revealed
More than half (60%) of people living in poverty in the UK live in a household where someone is in work, the highest figure recorded, according to a new Cardiff University report. The report by Dr Rod Hick and Dr Alba Lanau from Cardiff University's School of Social Sciences, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, shines a new light on the growing problem of in-work poverty in the UK.
Life Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
22.05.2017
Brains or beauty? People perceive attractive scientists as more interesting but less able, studies show
Brains or beauty? People perceive attractive scientists as more interesting but less able, studies show
If you think of good science communicators, it's likely that the names Brian Cox, Alice Roberts or Neil deGrasse Tyson may come to mind. But do you consider them good science communicators because they look competent or because they are attractive? We know from studies showing that political success can be predicted from facial appearance, that people can be influenced by how someone looks rather than, necessarily, what they say.
Astronomy
22.05.2017
New details of TRAPPIST-1 system's outmost planet confirm earlier predictions
New details of TRAPPIST-1 system’s outmost planet confirm earlier predictions
An international team of astronomers, including researchers from the University of Cambridge, used data gathered by the Kepler Space Telescope to observe and confirm details of the outermost of seven exoplanets orbiting the star TRAPPIST-1. TRAPPIST-1h represents a perfect illustration of the power of the scientific method, of its ability to make predictions that can later be verified.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Administration/Government
22.05.2017
People with tinnitus needed for online research study
Researchers into the common hearing condition ‘tinnitus' are calling for help from the public for a new study to try to improve future medical investigations into the problem. The COMIT'ID study is being run by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre based at The University of Nottingham.
Astronomy
22.05.2017
New details of TRAPPIST-1 system's outermost planet confirm earlier predictions
New details of TRAPPIST-1 system’s outermost planet confirm earlier predictions
An international team of astronomers, including researchers from the University of Cambridge, used data gathered by the Kepler Space Telescope to observe and confirm details of the outermost of seven exoplanets orbiting the star TRAPPIST-1. TRAPPIST-1h represents a perfect illustration of the power of the scientific method, of its ability to make predictions that can later be verified.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
22.05.2017
‘Saddle-shaped' universe could undermine general relativity
‘Saddle-shaped’ universe could undermine general relativity
Researchers have shown how singularities - which are normally only found at the centre of black holes and hidden from view - could exist in highly curved three-dimensional space. It's a bit like having spacetime in a box. Toby Crisford The researchers, from the University of Cambridge, have used computer simulations to predict the existence of a so-called naked singularity, which interferes with Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Chemistry - Life Sciences
19.05.2017
How RNA formed at the origins of life
How RNA formed at the origins of life
A single process for how a group of molecules called nucleotides were made on the early Earth, before life began, has been suggested by a UCL-led team of researchers. Nucleotides are essential to all life on Earth as they form the building blocks of DNA or RNA, and understanding how they were first made is a long-standing challenge that must be resolved to elucidate the origins of life.
Social Sciences
19.05.2017
Grammar schools fail to help middle-income families
Grammar schools fail to help middle-income families
Selective education harms the university prospects of bright pupils who just miss out on a place at a grammar school, according to new research from the UCL Institute of Education (IOE), University of Bristol and University of Warwick. Primary school children in areas with a selective education system who perform well in Key Stage 2 assessments but do not manage to get into a grammar school are 3 percentage points less likely to attend university and 8 percentage points less likely to attend a high quality university compared to similar peers in non-selective areas.
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